Farm Workers at Work in Root Crops, Cotton, Hay

Industrial Agriculture: Machines Take Over

California Farm Workers at Work in Root Crops, Cotton, Hay

farm workers at work
September, 1958, Fresno, CA. Child with mother in cotton harvest.

n 1958, when Harvey Richards photographed farm workers at work in California’s central valley, California agriculture was undergoing a transformation from hand to machine work in many crops.  

Not all crops, but certainly root crops and extensive crops like cotton and hay took to the new machines in a big way. Spurred on by the imminent collapse of the bracero system (abolished in 1964) employing guest workers at substandard wages, the impulse to mechanize was fundamentally a quest for profits.  It took millions of dollars of investment combined with the cooperation (at no charge to agribusiness) of the University of California research facilities to make it happen.

Abundant capital for mechanization put the lie to the claim that agribusiness could not afford to pay living wages or to support unemployment insurance for farm workers. Profits from agriculture went into the banks, leaving farm workers powerless in the face of a billionaire employers and their political allies.

At a pivotal moment in this process in 1958, Harvey Richards focused his cameras on the workers and work in agriculture. His purpose, of course, was to produce helpful documentary images and films for organized labor. But, beyond this, having been a worker himself, he recorded the impact of the relentless quest for profits on the human beings who did the work.

The industrial food system created during these years by agribusiness tore at the fabric of our nurturing relations with the land, creating instead a chemical filled, machine dominated production system where dirt was synonymous with poison and nurturing was transformed into repetitive factory style work in the hot sun. Mechanical harvesting destroyed tens of thousands of jobs with devastating impacts on the labor force and the land.

Wave after wave of foreign immigrant and domestic migrant labor traveled to California seeking work in agriculture in those years and continuing up to today. Small scale farmers, pushed off the land by dust storms, mechanization, bank foreclosures, and collapsing world prices for agricultural commodities, found California agriculture a very unwelcoming place to make a new life.  And group after group has left it for better opportunities elsewhere. Nothing, it seemed, could please the agribusiness barons more than reducing the work force to anonymous replaceable unskilled units of labor who found no support in social legislation or surrounding communities. Use them and discard them.

Truly, industrial farming grew into an inhuman system which not so many years later would adopt the genetic modification of plants with escalating use of poisons for the purpose of increasing profits yet again as it completed the near total destruction of balanced relations of human kind with the earth. Industrial farming was not only a dead end for the workers, it has become a dead end for humanity.

All images are copyrighted © Paul Richards 2001-2020.

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